vaccine is a substance that produces immunity to specific diseases. Vaccines help the body
recognise the disease-causing bacteria and viruses. Vaccines contain antigens that consist of a small portion of the micro-organism we want to protect our body from. The micro-organisms are generally weakened or killed.

before they can grow Vacine preparations can be natural, synthetic, or derived by recombinant DNA technology. The term ‘vacine’ is derived from the word vaccinia. Vaccinia is the viral agent of cowpox that was used to vaccinate people against the disease.
Types of vaccines

Vaccines have traditionally been classified into four categories: (a) vacines with killed micro-organisms (b) vacines with live, weakened micro-organisms (c) toxoids, and (d) sub-units. Vaccines with killed micro-organisms cannot cause an infection. They
include inactivated polio vacine (IPV) and inactivated influenza vaccine. Vaccines with live, weakened micro- organisms contain bacteria or viruses that have been altered so they cannot cause disease. They include the measles vacine, mumps vacine, Rubella (German
measles) vacine, oral polio vaccine (OPV), and varicella (chickenpox) vaccine. Toxoid vacines are made by treating toxins produced by germs with heat or chemicals. They include diphtheria toxoid vaccine and tetanus toxoid vacine. Some vaccines are made by
using only parts of the viruses or bacteria. They mainly include hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis A vacine.

Antigen is a substance that causes the body to produce antibodies. Antigens may be foreign bodies such as bacteria, viruses and pollens. They can enter the body through the
respiratory tract, digestive tract, or skin.
Immune system
the immune system protects our body from dis agents. It is a complex network of various
glands and tissues that protect the body from bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens. The organs of the immune system include the lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, Peyer’s patch and spleen.
Immunology is a branch of biomedical science that studies the immune system in all It studies the functioning of the immune systemand immunological disorders such as auto-immune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, etc. organisms
Immunisation is the process of making people immu to infectious organisms by administering vacines. Immunisation is also known as vaccination. The wo vaccination was first used for the injection of the smallpox vacine.
Edward Jenner
Edward Jenner was an English doctor. He was the first doctor to introduce and study the smallpox vacine. In the 18th century smallpox was a killer disease. After Jenner’s
invention of the vacine, the British government banned all other smallpox treatments. Smallpox was finally eradicated from the world in the 1980s.
Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur was a French chemist. He worked on Edward Jenner’s theories and developed vacines for various diseases. Pasteur created the first vaccine for rabies. Pasteur is also known for developing the process of pasteurisation. He is best known for his remarkable achievements and discoveries in microbiology.
Polio vaccines

Polio is a viral disease that usually affects young children. It is caused by a virus called the polio The disease causes paralysis of body parts. There are two polio vacines that are used to fight the disease. The first vacine was developed by Jonas Salk in 1952. The second
vaccine was developed by Albert Sabin in 1957. Both the vacines have helped eradicate
polio to a great extent.
Joseph Meister

Joseph Meister was the first person vaccinated by Louis Pasteur against rabies. Meister was bitten by a rabid dog when he was nine years old. Pasteur treated him with a weakened rabies virus. The treatment was successful and Meister did not develop rabies.
Becton, Dickinson and Company
The first mass-produced disposable syringes and needles were manufactured by Becton, Dickinson and Company in 1954. The syringes were developed for Dr Jonas Salk for the administration of the Salk polio vacine in America.
Benjamin A. Rubin
Benjamin A. Rubin was a microbiologist who invented the bifurcated vaccination needle in 1965 Rubin’s needle helped speed up the process ofvaccination. It could hold enough vacine to inoculate a person with a few jabs.


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