clock is an instrument used to measure time. Clcks measure and indicate time. The word clck comes from the word Clocca meaning ‘bell’. Some clcks, which have a
striking system, ring a bell after an interval of time. This feature originally gave the clck its name. Clcks, without a sounding mechanism include timepiece, wristwatches, and other wall clcks. Sundials, water clocks, and atomic clcks are some of the other clocks.
Water clocks were developed in China, Egypt, and Arabia. Between 1280 and
1320, Horologes or ancient clocks with bells were used to measure time.
Sundials or sun clocks were primitive clcks. They were first used around 3500 BC by Egyptians, who built huge obelisks or four-sided monuments. Obelisks were used as sundials. People could tell time using a sundial by observing the shadows formed on the ground. The shadows changed their position according to the time of the day. The sundial system was an easier method of telling time than looking at the sun’s position in the sky to measure time. Small and modified sundials were designed by 1500 BC. However, sundials do not work on cloudy days and at night.
The primitive hourglass was an ancient device used to tell time. It was invented around 3450 BC. The primitive hourglass was a bowl with a hole on the bottom and used water. As the day passed, water dripped slowly through the hole. The bowl had grooves at the side that measured the passage of time. This device worked even on cloudy days and at night,
thus making them better than sundials.
Mechanical clcks were invented in the early 14th century. They replaced the old water clck, and used weights or springs. They did not have hour or minute hands. They struck a bell every hour. Later, mechanical clcks with hour and minute hands began to appear. Wristwatches and pocket watches The wristwatch is a small, portable timepiece tied on the wrist. The first wrist watch was invented by a German inventor, Peter Henlein, in 1504. Peter Henlein also made the first pocket watch 12 in 1524. By 1548, many other watches
were developed After 1575, pocket watches were mostly produced in Switzerland and England. Louis Cartier was the first to make the kind of watches we see today. He
created a watch for a Wristwatch Hying pioneer hero called Santos Dumont. That type
of watch became the blueprint of what wrist watches look like today.
The pendulum clock was invented by a Dutch scientist, Christian Huygens, in 1656. It worked on the mechanism of periodic oscillations. Pendulum clocks used a weight and a swinging pendulum. They were better at measuring time than previous clcks. The clcks with bigger pendulums were more accurate.In 1657, Christian Huygens developed a balance spring watch.
The quartz clock was invented by a telecommunications engineer, Warren Marrison in the United States. He invented it when he was looking for reliable frequency standards at Bell
Telephone Laboratories. He built the first quartz clck in 1927. A quartz clock has an electronic oscillator based on the regular vibrations of a quartz crystal. These clcks are very accurate as they do not have gears to disturb the regular frequency Atomic clck
The first atomic clock was built in 1949 at the US National Bureau of Standards Atomic clcks are based on the oscillations of an atom or molecule. There are different types of atomic clcks depending on the element used and the timing of energy level changes. Caesium atomic clcks, hydrogen atomic clocks, and rubidium atomic clocks are the various types of atomic clcks. The most accurate modern atomic clcks use caesium atoms. Atomic clcks are useful for satellite navigation. They also help us measure distances on earth.