Printing Press Johannes Gutenberg
He printing press is a machine used for printing multiple copies of a document. The machine transmits ink from a printing plate to the printing medium, which is usually paper. Printing is an industrial process that involves making many identical copies of a document.
Different types of printing machines and methods have been developed over the years. Modern methods of printing such as digital printing, laser printing, and screen-printing have made printing faster and better.
Early methods of printing
The earliest forms of printing can be traced back to China around 2,000 years ago. The Chinese engraved text and images on wooden blocks The wooden blocks were then dipped in ink and pressed on paper. This form of printing was known as wood block printing. The Chinese are also known to have invented movable printing. In this type of printing, clay blocks were used to represent the letters. The characters were then arranged on an iron plate with removable glue. The earliest printed book known is the Diamond Sutra, printed in China in AD 868.
Early printing presses
The first printing press was very slow. These presses used a screw-type mechanism to exert pressure on the printing form. The screw press was improved upon in the 1600s by introducing springs that helped the press move rapidly. After the improvement, the press was able to produce 250 copies a hour.
Johannes Gutenberg was the inventor of Western printing. He invented the movable type printing technique in 1452. Gutenberg used paper and oil-based ink for printing. It was a great improvement over hand copying. It was both time saving and economical. Gutenberg
first successfully printed the book The Gutenberg Bible’. It was sold for the first time at
the 1455 Frankfurt Book Fair.
Phototypesetting is a method of setting type that uses a photographic process to generate columns of type on a scroll of photographic paper. It was invented by Louis Marius Moyroud and Rene Alphonse higonnet in the 1940s.
Lithography is a method for printing on a smooth surface. It was invented by Aloius Senfelder in Germany in 1798. The method is based on the chemical repelience of oil and water. The designs are awn on limestone with greasy ink or crayons. Once the designs are drawn the stone is moistened with the crayon drawings do not soak the water. After soaking it, oily ink is applied on it with a roller. The wet parts of the stone repel the water.
So, only the areas marked with crayon have the ink. A paper is then pressed on the stone and a print of the inked drawing is formed on it.
Desktop publishing is a modern method of book design, layout, and production using high- speed computers and laser printers.
Offset printing is a very popular printing process. It is generally used to produce large volumes of high quality printing. It was developed in 1875 in England.
Digital printing is the reproduction of digital images on a physical surface, such as common
or photographic paper, film, cloth, plastic, etc. It is different from other forms of printing in
many ways. In this form of printing, the ink or toner forms a layer on the surface. Unlike
conventional ink, the paper does not absorb it. Digital printing also requires fewer chemi cals.