Laser


the laser is a device that amplifies light and emits very high-energy light beams. Laser is the acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.

Invention
The story of the invention of lasr began in 1917 when Albert Einstein explained the principle of stimulated emission. According to this principle, an atom can release its excess energy in the form of concentrated light by using light of a certain frequency. In 1954, following Einstein’s principle, Charles Townes and Arthur Schawlow developed the lasr (microwave amplification by stimulatedemission of radiation). This device was very close
to the lasr. However, it was operated using radio signals instead of visible light. It also had a shorter wavelength than the lasr.
Lasr light consists of a single wavelength or colour. Lasers can generate light from the
infrared to the X-ray range in a continuous, constant-amplitude or as pulses. There are
many types of lasers, which vary in strength, efficiency and utility.

First working laser
An American physicist, Theodore Harold Maiman, invented the world’s first working laser in 1960. He patented the prototype of the ruby lasr. He used a synthetic ruby rod to build the first working lasr. The rod was silvered at both ends to reflect light. The lasr got the energy from a flash lamp. The device produced an output of monochromatic coherent beam of radiation. In 1962, Maiman founded his own company, Korad Corporation for the research, development, and manufacture of lasers. In 1968, he formed Maiman Associates after selling Korad.
Gordon Gould
The word ‘laser was coined by an American physicist Gordon Gould. Gould built his
optical lasr in 1958. was called the optically pumped lasr amplifiers or the gas-discharge excited light amplifiers or the Gordonian laser. It is used worldwide today
Carbon dioxide laser

The carbon dioxide (CO,) lasr is one of the most useful types of lasr. It was invented by
Kumar Patel in 1964, It has several practical applications. The CO, lasr is used in many forms of welding, cutting, and drilling of materials ranging from diamonds to cigarette
filters. In medicine, its primary use is in lasr surgery including the removal of tumours. In the environment it is used to analyse the chemical composition of the upper atmosphere, which aids in weather prediction It also detects pollutants that exist in ultra-low concentration.
Semiconductor injection laser
In 1962, Robert Hall created a revolutionary type of lasr. This laser is still used in many electronic appliances and communication systems that we use every day. Hall’s device allowed for highly efficient generation of coherent light from a very compact source. The semiconductor crystal was onlya 3 mm’ cube. The electrons were injected directly by
clectric current into the junction, rather than by an external, high-intensity light source
Uses of laser


Today, the lasr is used in many areas, including the field of medicine defence, business, and communication. Medical and lasers have been used for dermatological applications such as removal of port wine stains, dark spots, tattoos, acne scars, and other blemishes They are also used in diagnostic devices such as computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), etc. Lasers are also used in the mining industry to point out the drilling direction. It is also used to supervise waste water purification. It works as a light source in all fibre optics. It is widely used in computer devices such
as compact disc drives, printers, etc.

Arthur Schawlow

Arthur L. Schawlow was the co-inventor of the laser. He worked with Charles H. Townes to invent the lasr. He and Townes jointly received a patent for the invention of the lasr. In 1981, he received the Nobel Prize in physics for his work in lasr spectroscopy.
Ali Javan
Ali Javan is an Iranian Azeri inventor and physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He has made pioneering contributions to the field of applied lasr technology. Javan’s most significant invention is the helium-neon laser. He invented it
in 1960. His gas lasr was the first continuous-light lasr, used in the telecommunications industry, specifically through fibre optics technology. Today it is the most useful, practical, and profitable type of lasr in use. It is used in UPC code checkout scanners. It is
critical for a wide range of scientific, medical, and monitoring technologies.

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